Lab 11: Statistics

DAGs and Matching


Bogdan G. Popescu

1 Intro

In this lab, we learn about DAGs and Matching.

2 DAGs

DAGs stand for directed acyclic graphs. These are theoretical models that generated the data. This type of graph tells you what you should control for to isolate and identify a causal effect. The easiest way to quickly build DAGs and find adjustment sets and testable implications is to use It is easiest if you draw your diagrams on and then in R using the ggdag and dagitty packages. You can go to the Launch DAGitty online in your browser section.

2.1 Loading relevant packages

# Removing previous files and setting the directory
rm(list = ls())
library("tidyverse")  # For dplyr, ggplot, and friends
library("ggdag")  # For plotting DAGs
library("dagitty")  # For working with DAG logic

The general process for making and working with DAGs in R is to create a DAG object with dagify() and then plot it with ggdag(). The syntax for dagify() is similar to lm(). For example, if we think that y is caused by a, b, and c, we would write y ~ a + b + c. Similarly, if we think that a is caused by b and c, we would write a ~ b + c. If y ~ a + b + c and a ~ b + c are true at the same time, then b and c are called confounders.

2.2 Creating a simple DAG

# Creating a basic DAG
simple_dag <- dagify(
  y ~ a + b + c,
  a ~ b + c)